Fighting Corruption Alone: Civic Participation in OGP Anti-Corruption Commitments

by Fabro STEIBEL, Professor at ESPM Rio, IRM of GP Brazil and Executive Director of ITS, Marcelo ALVES and Marco KONOPACKI, Brasil.

 

 

Tim O’Rellyonce defined the architecture of the Internet based in micro units of participation that, when connected, create synergy. The architecture of participation (2004) as he defines made participation more accessible, cheaper and more interesting for millions of citizens, previously disconnected, to join the web. Applying the idea of O’Relly to open government, we have the task to adapt the structure of the network to how the bureaucracy of the government works, using the modus operandi of the micro tasks of the web to solve government problems such as tackling corruption. The challenge is not how to insert the Internet inside the government, but how to reconfigure government to make use of the architecture of the web (2015).          

The idea of wiki-government, as advocated by Beth Noveck for example, is an example of that. Noveck created during the first Obama administration a Peer-to-Patent platform that showed how technology can connect the expertise of the many to the power of the few. The website created connected patent examiners to volunteer scientists and technologists via the web. Together, they promoted a more transparent decision-making process, and a more cost-efficient process to solve complex social problems.             

Wiki-government should not be read as technological determinism, as a case where new technologies transform society, and where social arrangements are seen as secondary. On the contrary, wiki-government is a case of appropriation of technology, by society, to work collectively. As Henry Jenkins argues, participatory culture is a culture that is more and more highlighted in the Internet. Participation, as defined by Jenkins, refer to the technology users acting not only as consumers, but also as contributors and producers of content (2006).         

This lead us to expect a strong link between Internet, civic participation and fighting corruption. This is what justifies the growing number of events dedicated to explore this link such as Hacking iCorruption[1], open contracting and open corporate initiatives, such as the Open Contracting Partnership[2], and many more. The Open Data Revolution against corruption for example is delayed, and could be improved if we focus on more civic participation.

As a Report by RiSSC – Research Centre on Security and Crime (Italy) states,

the impact of Open Data on the prevention and repression of corruption, and on the development of anti- corruption tools, appears to be limited, and the return on investments not yet forthcoming” [3].

At the same time, a report by the Reuters Institute for Journalism[4] argues that open data require a rich ecosystem – made up of government departments, interest groups and NGOs, the media, civil society – which allows data driven projects the space to grow and the airtime to make an impact.

Beyond open data use, other areas that strike possibilities for civic participation in fighting corruption include opening budgets for scrutiny (the World Bank, for example, established a website to support such initiatives[5]), organizing conferences to discuss new possibilities to use technology to fight corruption (see for example the Hacking iCorruption event from the MIT Center for Civic Media[6]), group and mobilise civic technology initiatives to expose corruption (as the website Wecoot, that crowdsource ethical consumerism[7]), and others.

The Open Government Partnership (OGP) is a

voluntary, multi-stakeholder, international initiative that aims to secure concrete commitments from governments to their citizenry to promote transparency, empower citizens, fight corruption, and harness new technologies to strengthen governance”[8].

OGP includes 69 countries that bi-annually issue National Action Plans (NAPs) that address specific, measurable and addressable activities to promote actions related to specific issues such as fighting corruption.         

In this article, we analyse the data shared by OGP known as OGP Explorer, a set of 1984 commitments (update so as May/2015), recorded since the start of the Partnership in 2011, searching for how government are making use of civic participation and the architecture of the Internet to fight corruption, as in the cases of crowdsourcing and using open data to visualize issues. We explore to what extent a country’s CPI score, region, experience with OGP (i.e. how long a country has been in OGP for and the action plan cycle they are in) correlate with its adoption of anti-corruption commitments, inclusion of civic participation elements, and the inclusion of technology within those commitments that relate to anti-corruption and include civic participation elements.     

The use of technology is in one of the core of the concept of open government (Naser & Alujas, 2014; Noveck, 2004; Chen et all, 2012; Samapio, 2012), and mainly refers to the role of transparency, participation and collaboration in government transformation (Hansoon, Belkacem, Ekenberg, 2014). And as stated above, technology is social practice that has the potential to foster civic participation (but it would be wrong to expect to technology to drive such practices, being instead a condition to other forms of collaboration to flourish). If we connect the potential of technology to the values of OGP (particularly the values of participation and public accountability), we have a clear potential to fight corruption bringing together governments and civil society.

In the first section of this article, we address this question by understanding the prevalance of anti-corruption in OGP national action plans (NAPs). We find for example that 17% of all OGP commitments address anti-corruption themes, and analyse if those tend to me more starred, more delivered and more ambitious than other OGP commitments, and the country and regional context of such commitments.

In the second section of the article, we expand the debate to civic participation, understanding first the relationship between the Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) and the percentage of a country’s anti-corruption commitments, and then by analysing the use of civic participation in these commitments (as defined by OGP), and the use of some technology to foster mechanisms of participation.

§ 1 – What Is The Role of Anti-Corruption Commitments in OGP NAPs?

Out of 1984 commitments analyzed, 17% (or 338 commitments in total) addressed anti-corruption commitments. A commitment was coded as an anti-corruption if it (a) explicitly refers to the word corruption (e.g. to fight corruption, or (b) explicitly explore issues related to anti-corruption fight (e.g. increasing transparency in asset disclosure, strengthening social control in management of public resources, citizen monitoring of political party financing).

As Table 1 shows, this percentage increases from the 1st to the 2nd NAP (from 15.3% to 20%), and is higher in the regions of Africa and Asia (30.4% and 22.5%, respectively) and slightly lower in Europe (14.1%).

                 

Table 1 – Percentage of Anti-Corruption Commitments,

Per NAPs

 

Non-Anti-corruption

Anti-corruption

All

#

%

#

%

#

%

By NAP sequence

 

 

 

 

 

 

1st NAP

1059

84.7%

191

15.3%

1250

100.0%

2nd NAP

571

80.0%

143

20.0%

714

100.0%

3rd NAP

16

80.0%

4

20.0%

20

100.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By region

 

 

 

 

 

 

Africa

71

69.6%

31

30.4%

102

100.0%

Americas

613

83.1%

125

16.9%

738

100.0%

Asia

189

77.5%

55

22.5%

244

100.0%

Europe

770

85.9%

126

14.1%

896

100.0%

Oceania

3

75.0%

1

25.0%

4

100.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grand Total

1646

83.0%

338

17.0%

1984

100.0%

 

In general, as Table 2 shows around one-quarter of anti-corruption commitments are coherent with OGP starred standards, that is, are starred commitments. Starred commitments[9] refer to those commitments that are specific, relevant to open government and OGP values, have potential impact and must see significant progress during the action plan implementation period (showing substantial or complete progress). In numbers, 37.4% of them are starred, 23% are completed, 27.7% are potentially transformative, and 30.4% are highly specific.

When we compare anti-corruption and non-anticorruption commitments, we notice that the former is more likely to be starred and to have transformative potential impact than the later. That suggests anti-corruption adhere more to OGP standards than non-anticorruptions commitments do. At the same time, when we look at completion rates, anti-corruption commitments are more unlikely to be completed than non-anti-corruption commitments are. As such, although in some cases anti-corruption commitments adhere more to OGP standards, this is not always true.

 

Table 2 – Quality of Anti-Corruption Commitments         (Only IRM Reviewed Commitments Compared)

 

Non-Anti-corruption

Anti-corruption

All

#

%

#

%

#

%

Is starred?

 

 

 

 

 

 

No

569

67.6%

72

62.6%

641

67.0%

Yes

273

32.4%

43

37.4%

316

33.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Actual completion status

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not started

111

13.9%

6

5.3%

117

12.9%

Limited

267

33.5%

51

45.1%

318

34.9%

Substantial

174

21.8%

30

26.5%

204

22.4%

Complete

245

30.7%

26

23.0%

271

29.8%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Potential impact

 

 

 

 

 

 

None

49

7.2%

4

4.0%

53

6.8%

Minor

221

32.5%

26

25.7%

247

31.6%

Moderate

256

37.6%

43

42.6%

299

38.2%

Transformative

155

22.8%

28

27.7%

183

23.4%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Specificity

 

 

 

 

 

 

None

24

2.9%

6

5.2%

30

3.1%

Low

207

24.6%

35

30.4%

242

25.3%

Medium

252

29.9%

39

33.9%

291

30.4%

High

359

42.6%

35

30.4%

394

41.2%

 

When group countries per region, and analyse the percentage of commitments on anti-corruption, we notice for example that some countries dedicate more than half of the NAPs to fighting corruption, such as Hungary (80%), Turkey (71.4%), Ghana and Sierra Leone (63.6% each), while others dedicate no commitment to fighting corruption, such as Tanzania, Panama, Moldova, and Finland. Moldova is actually an interesting case, due to the long NAP lenght (out of 60 commitments submitted, none addressed anti-corruption commitments).

 

Table 3 – Percentage of Anti-Corruption Commitments,

Per Country

 

Non-Anti-corruption

Anti-corruption

All

 

#

         %

#

    %

#

%

Africa

Ghana

4

36.4%

7

63.6%

11

100.0%

Sierra Leone

4

36.4%

7

63.6%

11

100.0%

Tunisia

9

45.0%

11

55.0%

20

100.0%

Kenya

6

66.7%

3

33.3%

9

100.0%

Liberia

5

83.3%

1

16.7%

6

100.0%

South Africa

13

86.7%

2

13.3%

15

100.0%

Tanzania

30

100.0%

0.0%

30

100.0%

Americas

Honduras

33

71.7%

13

28.3%

46

100.0%

El Salvador

55

72.4%

21

27.6%

76

100.0%

Dominican Republic

26

74.3%

9

25.7%

35

100.0%

Colombia

21

75.0%

7

25.0%

28

100.0%

Brazil

65

77.4%

19

22.6%

84

100.0%

Philippines

22

78.6%

6

21.4%

28

100.0%

USA

42

79.2%

11

20.8%

53

100.0%

Peru

39

81.3%

9

18.8%

48

100.0%

Guatemala

51

82.3%

11

17.7%

62

100.0%

Trinidad and Tobago

11

84.6%

2

15.4%

13

100.0%

Argentina

17

89.5%

2

10.5%

19

100.0%

Canada

37

90.2%

4

9.8%

41

100.0%

Chile

28

90.3%

3

9.7%

31

100.0%

Costa Rica

21

91.3%

2

8.7%

23

100.0%

Paraguay

22

91.7%

2

8.3%

24

100.0%

Mexico

60

95.2%

3

4.8%

63

100.0%

Uruguay

58

98.3%

1

1.7%

59

100.0%

Panama

5

100.0%

0.0%

5

100.0%

Asia

Turkey

2

28.6%

5

71.4%

7

100.0%

Armenia

15

57.7%

11

42.3%

26

100.0%

Georgia

31

77.5%

9

22.5%

40

100.0%

Jordan

38

79.2%

10

20.8%

48

100.0%

Indonesia

25

80.6%

6

19.4%

31

100.0%

Mongolia

17

81.0%

4

19.0%

21

100.0%

South Korea

17

81.0%

4

19.0%

21

100.0%

Azerbaijan

32

86.5%

5

13.5%

37

100.0%

Israel

12

92.3%

1

7.7%

13

100.0%

Europe

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hungary

1

20.0%

4

80.0%

5

100.0%

Serbia

6

46.2%

7

53.8%

13

100.0%

Latvia

17

63.0%

10

37.0%

27

100.0%

Sweden

8

66.7%

4

33.3%

12

100.0%

Malta

5

71.4%

2

28.6%

7

100.0%

Czech Republic

7

77.8%

2

22.2%

9

100.0%

Montenegro

44

78.6%

12

21.4%

56

100.0%

Romania

23

79.3%

6

20.7%

29

100.0%

Norway

35

79.5%

9

20.5%

44

100.0%

Ukraine

43

79.6%

11

20.4%

54

100.0%

Ireland

21

80.8%

5

19.2%

26

100.0%

Albania

34

81.0%

8

19.0%

42

100.0%

Estonia

32

84.2%

6

15.8%

38

100.0%

UK

53

85.5%

9

14.5%

62

100.0%

Macedonia

76

88.4%

10

11.6%

86

100.0%

Croatia

73

89.0%

9

11.0%

82

100.0%

Lithuania

18

90.0%

2

10.0%

20

100.0%

Spain

21

91.3%

2

8.7%

23

100.0%

Greece

28

93.3%

2

6.7%

30

100.0%

Italy

15

93.8%

1

6.3%

16

100.0%

Netherlands

17

94.4%

1

5.6%

18

100.0%

Slovakia

21

95.5%

1

4.5%

22

100.0%

Bulgaria

48

96.0%

2

4.0%

50

100.0%

Denmark

46

97.9%

1

2.1%

47

100.0%

Moldova

60

100.0%

 

0.0%

60

100.0%

Oceania

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Zealand

3

75.0%

1

25.0%

4

100.0%

Grand Total

1646

83.0%

338

17.0%

1984

100.0%

 


 

§ 2   What Is the Role of Perception of Corruption in NAP Addressing Anti-Corruption Commitments?

The technical report issued by the IRM suggested clear evidence that anti-corruption was a broad theme supported by governments that, nonetheless, was often pursued without the idea of open government in mind. As the report writes:

“Action plans had a number of commitments that would clearly relate to the control of corruption, but lacked anything open about them. For example, internal-to-government reforms such as secret tribunals or internal-only audits-however commendable, accountability-spurring, or effective-do not meet the basic test of being ‘open’.”[10]

In this section we continue our research, comparing to what extent the perception of corruption in the country is related to the adoption of anti-corruption commitments in the NAPs, and how this perception is related to the use of civic mechanisms of participation to fight corruption in the country.

The CPI Score (Corruption Perception Index) is an index published by Transparency International that score countries on how corrupt their public sectors are seen to be.  The score is based in informed views of analysts, businesspeople and experts in the country, and is done since 1995[11].

In the Figure 1 we compare how the perception of corruption in the public sector (CPI score) compares to the share of NAP commitments dedicated to corruption.

 

Figure 1 – CPI score vs. % of Anti-Corruption Commitments

 

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In the Y axe, we plotted the CPI scores of all countries, and as we know, the higher the CPI score, the lower is the perception of corruption. In the X axe, we plotted the percentage of all NAP commitments in the country related to anti-corruption, and as we know, the higher the percentage, the more NAPs are related to anti-corruption. We also included in Figure 1 two bars, indicating the averages of each variable[12]. They are useful to split the countries in four groups.

 

Table 4 – Group I Countries

Country

CPI Score

% of Anti-Corruption Commitments

#

%

Czech Republic                       

51

22.2%

Georgia

52

22.5%

Hungary

54

80.0%

Latvia

55

37.0%

Malta

55

28.6%

New Zealand

91

25.0%

Sweden

87

33.3%

USA

74

20.8%

 

The second group, positioned in quarter II, refers to countries with relative high corruption perception (low CPI score), and high percentage of anti-corruption commitments. Countries falling into this group refer to what we most expect countries to do: in presence of a high perception of corruption as a public issue, NAPs dedicate overestimate the share of anti-corruption commitment. This is the case of Sierra Leone, that dedicates 63.6% of all commitments to fight corruption in face of a scenario where corruption is highly perceived as a public concern (CPI score of 31). In comparison, Honduras, that fall in the same group, has an even lower CPI score (29) and even so dedicates only 28.3% of all commitments to fight corruption.

Table 5 – Group II Countries

Country

CPI Score

% of Anti-Corruption Commitments

Armenia

37

42.3%

Brazil

43

22.6%

Colombia

37

25.0%

Dominican Republic

32

25.7%

El Salvador

39

27.6%

Ghana

48

63.6%

Honduras

29

28.3%

Jordan

49

20.8%

Kenya

25

33.3%

Montenegro

42

21.4%

Philippines

38

21.4%

Romania

43

20.7%

Serbia

41

53.8%

Sierra Leone

31

63.6%

Tunisia

40

55.0%

Turkey

45

71.4%

The third group, positioned in quarter III, refers to countries with relative high corruption perception (low CPI score), and low percentage of anti-corruption commitments. Countries falling into this group refer to those not using NAP to address the equivalent level of corruption perceived as a public issue. This is the case for example of Paraguay, that in spite of a very low CPI Score (24) dedicated only 8.3% of all commitments to fight corruption. It is also the case of Tanzania, that formulated no commitment to fight corruption even with a CPI score of 31.

 

Table 6 – Group III Countries

Country

CPI Score

% of Anti-Corruption Commitments

#

%

Albania

33

19.0%

Argentina

34

10.5%

Azerbaijan

29

13.5%

Bulgaria

43

4.0%

Croatia

48

11.0%

Greece

43

6.7%

Guatemala

32

17.7%

Indonesia

34

19.4%

Italy

43

6.3%

Liberia

37

16.7%

Mexico

35

4.8%

Moldova

35

0.0%

Mongolia

39

19.0%

Panama

37

0.0%

Paraguay

24

8.3%

Peru

38

18.8%

South Africa

44

13.3%

Tanzania

31

0.0%

Trinidad and Tobago

38

15.4%

Ukraine

26

20.4%

 

The fourth and last group, positioned in quarter IV, refers to countries with relative low corruption perception (high CPI score), and low percentage of anti-corruption commitments. Countries falling into this group refer to countries that formulate relatively few commitments to fight corruption, but do so in an environment where corruption is not perceived as a major topic. This is the case of Finland, that formulated no commitment to fight corruption, but has a very high CPI Score (89), or Denmark, that has only 2.1% of commitments on anti-corruption having at the same time a CPI Score the top core of the group (92).

 

Table 7 – Group IV Countries

Country

CPI Score

% of Anti-Corruption Commitments

#

%

Canada

81

9.8%

Chile

73

9.7%

Costa Rica

54

8.7%

Denmark

92

2.1%

Estonia

69

15.8%

Finland

89

0.0%

Ireland

74

19.2%

Israel

60

7.7%

Lithuania

58

10.0%

Macedonia

NA

11.6%

Netherlands

83

5.6%

Norway

86

20.5%

Slovakia

50

4.5%

South Korea

55

19.0%

Spain

60

8.7%

UK

78

14.5%

Uruguay

73

1.7%

§ 3   How Are Countries With a High Perception of Corruption, and a High Share of Anti-Corruption Commitments Delivering?

Amongst all four groups, group II is the one that most addresses the goals of OGP. In an environment of corruption perceived as a highly sensitive public issue, those countries are using NAPs above the average to fight corruption. The question however is: are these countries performing well?

Table compares the quality of anti-corruption commitments against all commitments analyzed by IRMs. Group 2 shows less starred commitments, less completed commitments, and less highly specific commitments than the average of all commitment. The only index where group 2 performs better than the overall average is the share of transformative potential impact. That suggests that the overall quality of Group 2 commitments is lower than the overall commitments, even if the commitments tend to be more ambitious in potential impact than the overall commitments are.

 

Table 8 – Quality of Anti-Corruption Commitments            (Only IRM Reviewed Commitments Compared)

 

Group 2 countries

All

#

%

#

%

Is starred?

 

 

 

 

No

37

69.8%

641

67.0%

Yes

16

30.2%

316

33.0%

 

 

 

 

 

Actual completion status

 

 

 

 

Not started

3

5.7%

117

12.9%

Limited

26

49.1%

318

34.9%

Substantial

16

30.2%

204

22.4%

Complete

8

15.1%

271

29.8%

 

 

 

 

 

Potential impact

 

 

 

 

None

1

2.2%

53

6.8%

Minor

12

26.7%

247

31.6%

Moderate

20

44.4%

299

38.2%

Transformative

12

26.7%

183

23.4%

 

 

 

 

 

Specificity

 

 

 

 

None

5

9.4%

30

3.1%

Low

11

20.8%

242

25.3%

Medium

18

34%

291

30.4%

High

19

35.8%

394

41.2%

 

It is important to consider however that the performance of countries in group 2 is highly diverse. Philippines, for example, included 3 commitments to fight corruption, 2 of them stared, all highly specific. Armenia, Dominican Republic, Jordan, and Montenegro all submitted 6 or more commitments, but had none of just one commitment starred, and out of those, only Jordan delivered completely or substantially more than half of the commitments dedicated to fight corruption.

As a general result, Group 2 points to the most promising group of countries to address corruption, but the overall performance of countries who fall into this group is below average, and with few exception (Brazil for example, who delivered all commitments formulated to fight corruption, and Philippines, aforementioned), the promise is not largely delivered.

§ 4   What Is The Role of The Civil Society in Fighting Corruption?

We identified in the sample 338 corruption addressing the fight to corruption, however, how many of those included civil society to tackle the problem? In a previous work we analysed the 1st and 2nd NAPs of Brazil, looking for the extent to which the fight to corruption include civil society as a stakeholder, and how new technologies are used to foster mechanism of public participation. In our analysis, we found that more than half of the Brazilian commitments aiming to fight corruption had no role for civic participation, and amongst those, even fewer used technology to connect government and citizens to address the issue (Lemos, Steibel, 2015)[13].

We recoded all the anti-corruption commitments looking for mentions to civil society actors, coding as “civil society participation included” any explicit mention to citizens, CSOs, individuals, general public or other reference to civil society. Our analysis found 46 anti-corruption commitments sharing anti-corruption tasks with civil society members (the equivalent of 13,6% of all anti-corruption commitments coded). In other words, in almost 9 in 10 commitments that aim to fight corruption, no civil society partner is explicitly mentioned.

 

Table 9 – Use of technology, and mechanisms of participation, in anti-corruption commitments (N=46)

 

 

Anti-corruption

#

%

Use of technology

 

 

Use of big data

2

4.3%

Use of open data

9

19.6%

Use of online websites

13

28.3%

Use of social media

1

2.2%

Use of any technology

15

32.6%

 

 

 

Mechanism of participation proposed

 

 

Information

12

26.1%

Consultation

25

54.3%

Involvement

8

17.4%

Collaboration

1

2.2%

Empowerment

0

-

 

 

 

Grand Total

46

100%

 

Amongst those 46 commitments, we also looked for the use of technology to foster civic participation. We looked for explicit mentions to four trending digital tools (i.e. use of big data, open data, online websites and social media), and then analysed how these tools are being used to promote mechanisms of public participation. In specific, we looked at how these mechanisms fall into the IAP2 spectrum of civic participation.

The IAP2 – International Association of Participation (2007)[14] is a methodology to code civic participation being currently used by IRM reports to rank the consultations run by government during the design of the NAPs. Amongst the five grades, a sharp different between the first two (i.e. information and consultation) and the last three (i.e. involvement, collaboration and empowerment) refers to how decision-making is set. In the first cases, government takes decision alone, while in the later, government gradually share some decision-making powers with civil society. Based on the IAP2 spectrum, only involvement/collaboration/empowerment include sharing-decision mechanisms, and this is the goal we are pursuing as good use of technology to fight corruption.

As Table 8 shows, only one in three commitments that fight corruption with aid of civic participation make use key of open government technologies, being online websites the most frequent one (28.3% of the commitments fall into this category).

The worst scenario however is that four out of five (80.4%) commitments do not include sharing-decision mechanisms with civil society to fight corruption. Based on the IAP2 standards, this means that governments are deciding alone how to best fight corruption. One evidence of that is that Consultation is by far the most common use of technology to engage civil society in such task (54.3% of commitments fall into this category).

§ 5   Discussion

Our findings suggest that civil society participation is not a priority in OGP commitments that aim to fight corruption. Anti-corruption commitments are indeed a focus of NAPs, but using technology, and the participative architecture of the Internet, is not.

What are the driving forces for countries to use OGP commitments to fight corruption? As we identified, the main drivers for anti-corruption commitments are region (Africa for example has more emphasis in including anti-corruption commitments than other regions have), maturity in OGP (seconds NAPs tend to have more anti-corruption commitments than firsts NAPs), and the perception of corruption in a country (CPI score, meaning that the more corruption is perceived as a national problem, more likely is to see anti-corruption commitments in the NAP).

Nonetheless, civic participation in anti-corruption is understood poorly. In spite of the potential to create mechanism of civic participation, most commitments dedicate few or no attention to include civil society in the task of fighting corruption.

 

References

Chen Y. et all, Electronic Governance and Cross-Boundary Collaboration: Innovations and Advancing Tools, London: Information Science Reference, 2012.

Hanson K., Belkacem K., Ekenberg. L., “Open Government and Democracy”, Social Sciense Computer Review, Suécia. Dez. 2014, Available at: www.ssc.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/12/03/0894439314560847 Acesso em: 16 abril 2014.

IAP2. Spectrum of participation Available at:.

http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.iap2.org/resource/resmgr/imported/IAP2%20Spectrum_vertical.pdf. Acesso em 16 Abril 2015.

Jenkins H., Culture of Convergence, São Paulo: Aleph, 2008.

Kassen M., “Globalization of e-government: open government as a global agenda; benefits, limitations and ways forward”, Information Development, February 2014 30: 51-58, doi:10.1177/0266666912473620. 2013.

Naser A., Plan de gobierno abierto: Una hoja de ruta para los gobiernos de la región, Cepal, Quito, Mar. 2014. Available at:

www.repositorio.cepal.org/handle/11362/36665. Acesso em: 16 abril 2015.

Noveck B., Wiki government: how technology can make government better, democracy stronger, and citizens more powerful, Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. 2009.

O’Relly T., The Architecture of Participation, Available at:

http://archive.oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/articles/architecture_of_participation.html. Acesso em: 06 Abr 2015. 2004.

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http://www.opengovpartnership.org/about. Acesso em 16 de Abril de 2015.

 

List of anti-corruption commitments

making use of technologies

 

Country name

Comm: Commitment title

Comm: Full commitment text

USA

Increase Transparency in Spending

The Administration s efforts to increase transparency in Federal spending have opened up new data on Federal procurement and financial assistance The Administration intends to further increase the transparency of where Federal tax dollars are spent by committing to Join the Global Initiative on Fiscal Transparency The United States will join the Global Initiative on Fiscal Transparency GIFT an international network of governments and non government organizations aimed at enhancing financial transparency accountability and stakeholder engagement The Administration will actively participate in the GIFT Working Group and seek opportunities to work with others to champion fiscal openness in appropriate global forums Regularly Engage with External Stakeholders The U S Government will hold quarterly meetings with external stakeholders to identify and prioritize ways to improve the usability and functionality of the USASpending gov website Open Up Federal Spending Data The U S Government will make Federal spending data more easily available in open and machine readable formats Publish Additional Federal Contracting Data The Administration will facilitate the publication of certain Federal Government contract information not currently available in order to increase transparency and accountability of the Federal procurement system Information will be made available consistent with Federal rulemaking procedures Provide Strategic Direction for Enhancing Fiscal Transparency The Administration through the work of the Government Accountability and Transparency Board GATB will continue to provide strategic direction to the Federal Government on ways to increase Federal spending transparency and to detect waste fraud or abuse GATB will update its annual plan with 2013 accomplishments and 2014 objectives including issues of data analytics and data integrity and standardization for procurement and grants

Ukraine

Preventing and combating corruption

11 Developing with the involvement of members of the public methodological recommendations on identification of corruption risks in judicial officials work and of ways to counteract them

Ukraine

Preventing and combating corruption

10 Developing with the involvement of members of the public anti corruption regional programmes

Ukraine

16 Regional anti corruption programmes

Development in collaboration with the public of regional programs for preventing and combating corruption based on best domestic and international practices

Ukraine

10 Public access to information in state registers

Public discussion of implementing a mechanism for free facilitated and toll-free access including via the Internet to information stored in state registers in particular the immovable property rights register the register of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs the register of persons who committed corruption offences the land registry

Ukraine

3 Amendments to resolutions on collaboration with civil society

Amending resolutions by the Cabinet of Ministers regulating collaboration with civil society bodies as related to holding consultations with the public evaluation by the public of executive agencies activities and anti corruption public evaluation of draft regulations

UK

13 The Scottish government broadly endorses the principles of open contracting and commits to work with civil society and wider stakeholder groups to improve transparency in its procurement practices as part of our continuing programme of procurement reform

The Scottish government has set out a clear vision for the future of Scotland At the core of its programme is the determination to focus government and public services on creating a more successful country with opportunities for all of Scotland to flourish through increasing sustainable economic growth The Scottish government and the wider public sector are committed to public procurement reform The Procurement Reform Scotland Bill is intended to build on the work to date It aims to establish a national legislative framework for public procurement that supports Scotland s economic growth by delivering social and environmental benefits supporting innovation and promoting public procurement processes and systems which are transparent streamlined standardised proportionate fair and business friendly Promoting transparency accountability and the efficient use of public resources is central to this vision and to ensuring value for money Open contracting relates to ensuring transparency and accountability in procurement practices and procedures which in turn will promote fair competition and greater access by all sectors to public sector contracts Timescales In 2014 the Scottish government will undertake external stakeholder engagement on the open contracting commitment We will monitor the extents to which contracts are advertised through PCS and compliance generally with the transparency elements of the Bill and our widerprocurement reform programme

UK

12 The UK government endorses the principles of open contracting We will build on the existing foundation of transparency in procurement and contracting and in consultation with civil society organisations and other stakeholders we will look at ways to enhance the scope breadth and usability of published contractual data

 Open contracting refers to practices for increased disclosure and citizen participation in public contracting It covers the entire process including formation award execution performance and completion of public contracts Domestically our vision is to provide accountability to the taxpayer for how government funds are spent to drive better value for money and increased competition and to improve the quality of the services and products government buys We will achieve this by delivering greater transparency of the procurement and contracting process The UK is sharing its expertise in open contracting through an international group of organisations led by the World Bank The Open Contracting Partnership introduced a set of Open Contracting Global Principles to a public audience for consultation on its blog and website in August 2013 This was after developing them over a period of 18 months with over 200 representatives from governments the private sector and civil society The UK broadly welcomes these principles and will look to assist developing nations to improve the transparency of their government contracting The Open Contracting Partnership is also working to develop a set of open data standards that should also deliver greater harmonisation of the data that is published Timescales Over the next 12 to 24 months the UK government will endorse implement and champion internationally the Open Contracting Principles at the end of October 2013 and continue to assist in the development of a set of open contracting data standards subject to technical capability enhance the scope breadth and usability of published contractual data on the Contracts Finder system to include o providing greater transparency of contracts awarded overseas beginning October 2013 o delivering a new procurement pipeline in November 2013 o investigating the feasibility of providing greater transparency of design competitions run by the Technology Strategy Board o engaging with prime contractors to encourage them to provide improved visibility of supply chain opportunities and explore a means of standardising the publication of sub contractor details through Contracts Finder to make this data more accessible o investigating the use of open corporate identifiers to allow the data to be more easily compared and linked to other data held about contracting authorities and suppliers o working with a user group to look at ways of improving site usability to make it easier to publish data and to find opportunities and other data of interest look to introduce standard transparency clauses into central government contracts in consultation with civil society organisations and the business community build on the findings from a pilot programme by launching the new Solutions Exchange website during Winter 2013 for small and medium sized enterprises to pitch innovative solutions to government outside of the formal procurement process and for government to conduct informal pre market engagement by providing greater transparency of the challenges and themes to which solutions are needed take steps to ensure transparency about outsourced services is provided in response to freedom of information requests by encouraging the use and enforcement of contractual provisions to maintain the levels of transparency provided by the Freedom of Information Act 2000 revised guidance will be provided in 2014 publish contracts using the local language where contracts are drawn up with overseas suppliers we will consider what further steps can be taken to provide greater transparency of contracts to affected communities where additional language barriers occur

UK

9 The UK government will promote the principles of transparency and accountability in all government funded construction projects in the domestic and international arenas including in the period up until 2015 working with others in government and civil society to identify suitable projects for the application of the Construction Sector Transparency Initiative CoST in the UK using its bilateral and multilateral relationships to encourage the establishment of at least four new national CoST programmes in countries where DFID is working

Promoting transparency and accountability in infrastructure will achieve impact in four interrelated areas reductions in corruption mismanagement and inefficiency creating a business environment in which contracts are awarded solely on the basis of price and quality better value for money invested in infrastructure better quality infrastructure and services The beneficiaries of these improvements are all those who contribute to the public purse through taxation and or use public infrastructure Private sector organisations that follow principles of integrity and efficient management in bidding for and undertaking construction work will also benefit Our vision is for all governments to be applying the principles of openness and accountability to government funded construction projects Realising this vision is an enormous task and requires action on many fronts but the commitments included here will help demonstrate how it can be achieved Timescales The key milestones for this commitment are apply CoST disclosure requirements on additional projects in the UK by 2015 use government s bilateral and multilateral relationships to encourage the establishment of at least four new national CoST programmes by 2015 in countries where DFID is working

UK

6 The UK government will for the first time bring together all of the UK s anti corruption efforts under one cross government anti corruption plan

The UK s work so far has sought to address corruption both at home and abroad The UK government takes the issue of preventing and dealing with corruption where it occurs both at home and overseas very seriously Over recent years the UK has taken a number of steps to deal with corruption and we have good structures and legislation already in place including the Bribery Act 2010 which is a world leading piece of legislation reforming criminal law to provide a new modern and comprehensive scheme of bribery offences and including a new offence of failure by a commercial organisation to prevent a bribe being paid for or on its behalf the introduction of Deferred Prosecution Agreements as an additional tool to help prosecutors deal with bribery and corruption in large companies the appointment of a government Anti Corruption Champion covering both domestic and international affairs two Department for International Development DFID funded police units one in the Metropolitan Police investigating money stolen from developing countries and laundered through the UK and another unit in the City of London Police tackling bribery by UK companies and nationals in developing countries steps taken to tackle abuse of the LIBOR mechanism creation of the National Crime Agency which has the role and remit to lead support and direct other agencies to tackle serious and organised fraud bribery and corruption publication of the new Serious and Organised Crime Strategy which sets out how we will make the UK a more hostile place for bribery and corruption the strategy makes it clear that the Home Office will take a new lead role in coordinating all domestic bribery and corruption policy working with the Cabinet Office and DFID to align this with work on corruption overseas the creation in 2012 of a UK Asset Recovery Task Force to gather evidence trace assets and pursue legal cases to return money stolen and laundered through the UK by the former regimes of the Arab Spring countries Even with this activity taking place we recognise that there is more that can be done to improve our standing at home and to better manage our reputation for dealing with corruption and bribery offences overseas To do this the UK government will for the first time bring together all of the UK s anti corruption efforts under one cross government anti corruption plan The plan will bring greater coordination and effectiveness to the UK s efforts to tackle corruption both domestically and internationally across government and its agencies and with civil society business and international institutions Non governmental organisations NGOs and civil society organisations CSOs will be consulted for their views on the content of the plan The plan will include a range of measures that the UK will take to prevent corruption and enforce relevant legislation For example once refreshed EU rules are in place whereby we are already required to exclude suppliers for bribery and corruption we will reconsider the potential benefits and disadvantages of a register of excluded suppliers implementing and enforcing the UK Bribery Act by resourcing enforcement agencies and ensuring effective reporting processes tackling money laundering through international collaboration The UK government will also build on good progress made so far by continuing to work with the UK s Overseas Territories to extend to them the United Nations Convention against Corruption and the Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development OECD Anti Bribery Convention The Home Office will provide the coordination function across government which will report jointly to the Home Secretary and the government s Anti Corruption Champion

Turkey

A2 Holding an Advisory Platform for Transparency in Public and Openness at least once a year with the broad participation of representatives of public sector non governmental organizations and private sector holding seminars workshops and conferences with a view to increasing public awareness in the areas of integrity transparency accountability and combating against corruption

This platform will enable different segments of our society to thoroughly discuss the social and economic effects of steps taken in the fields of integrity transparency accountability and combating against corruption trigger debates on which measures should be taken on these issues Various reports will be prepared and evaluation of the results of the previous year will be conducted Both by means of www transparency gov tr and via seminars conferences and workshops to be held under the leadership of Non Governmental Organizations our target is to keep the public s interest continuous on matters related to integrity transparency accountability and combating against corruption

Turkey

A1 Setting up a web portal named www transparency gov tr

A web portal will be set up which will provide all the current information about the projects and strategies implemented by the Government regarding integrity transparency accountability and combating against red tape and corruption all legal and other arrangements in these fields all international conventions that we are party to and the activities carried out at international organizations of which we are a member Our aim through this web site will be to set up an infrastructure whereby it will be possible to receive feedback from citizens regarding draft laws and bills as well as all issues related to the implementation of these regulations Thus the public will continuously be fully informed and active participation in these matters will be encouraged

Tunisia

Commitment n 9 Develop a number of administrative services on line

Based on a participatory approach through the organization of online consultation a list of the administrative services that are much used by citizens and that can be automated will be drawn This list will include e services with different maturity level Informative interactive and fully integrated services that covers the needs of different administration users citizens businesses public servants foreigners Developing online services will certainly enhance the public sector transparency reduce corruption and support the participatory approach

Tunisia

Commitment n 2 Developing an integrated electronic civil petition and corruption reporting platform

This platform will contribute to fight corruption and promote citizen participation Using multiple channels Website Call center SMS direct visits of citizens the system will be a channel to receive citizens complaints and report corruption cases These complaints will be dispatched to different public structures at the central regional and local levels The system ensures the follow up of the petition throughout the treatment process The system will allow the publication of data on received and treated petitions by category of the petition and by field It will allow citizens to follow up their petition treatment process and it will be designed based on a participatory approach involving civil society representatives This system will be implemented in phases to cover all public structures The first one concerns number of pilot ministries that will be latterly determined

Sweden

Commitment 4 Improved opportunities for dialogue and transparency in aid management and implementation

The commitment on improved opportunities for dialogue and transparency in aid management and implementation aims to increase mutual knowledge and participation Greater knowledge and involvement of more actors create better possibilities for accountability and promote innovative thinking Increased transparency also facilitates active involvement and public participation and may limit the scope for corruption and misuse of resources The commitment will mainly be achieved through strengthening channels for dialogue and feedback on aid management and implementation with different parts of society Main activities Develop and implement an updated government strategy for aid information and communication activities 11 Negotiate and implement a compact between the Government and Swedish civil society organisations that enhances dialogue and outlines these organisations role in Swedish aid Support initiatives related to ICT that create opportunities for increased participation from a broader spectrum of the population Further develop procedures for management of reports by the public organisations and employees of misuse suspected corruption and other complaints with an impact on Swedish aid funds

South Korea

d Strengthening Public Service Ethics

In order to discourage retired public oficials from seking lucrative positons outside the public sector post public employment wil be more strictly inspected in 2014 with a target restriction rate of 9 7 percent A detailed plan to strengthen the inspection is scheduled to be made available within the month of April 2014 The Korean government wil hold regular advisory group metings at least twice a year withretired oficials public administration profesors and experts to gain fedback constantly on the inspection proces in place The target restriction rate wil be adjusted upward every year from 2015 Also retired public oficials wil be provided with guidelines about post public employment restrictions on the website for aset disclosure as son as they sign in to declare their retirement status In aditon from the second half of 2014 the result of inspections on post public employment wil beposted on the websites of government oficial ethics commites for the purpose of making the ethics commites more transparent and acountable and enhancing their reliabilty to citzens

South Korea

c Enhancing Information Disclosure

Since late March in 2014 any government documents signed by director generals or higher have ben disclosed no mater whether they are requested to be disclosed or not Those documents are uploaded on information disclosure portal open go kr However in acordance with the Public Information Act documents that contain private information 8 items must not be disclosed At he end of May about 80 00 original documents were disclosed and the range of documents to be disclosed wil be expanded from 2015 To be specific even those documents signed by directors wil be disclosed which wil result in 10 milion documents to be disclosed anualy In order to make sure the shared information met the demands of civil society the Ministry of Security and Public Administration MOSPA wil form a citzen watch group that overses the proces of information disclosure by the end of June 2014 and the watch group is composed of civil society members experts and other ordinary citzens The watch group members were selected through an online contest among those who were interested in disclosure of information and those who had most actively requested for disclosure of information became the members of the group This group wil be responsible for reviewing how disclosure of information is conducted in the central government agencies as wel as local governments and monitoring the performance of each agency by requesting disclosure of information themselves Another goal to be met in 2014 is to improve the quality of disclosed information To do so the Korean government wil anounce in advance the list of to be disclosed information categorized under ten specific areas of high interest health welfare food safety child rearing finance education consumer protection leisure job and housing

Sierra Leone

11 Establish an open data portal to improve transparency in fiscal and extractive transactions

 The Government of Sierra Leone has made a commitment to participate in the open government partnership in order to increase transparency and accountability and at the same time to help in the fight against corruption Building on our progress to date with other initiatives Sierra Leone continues its efforts to expand access to government data from government ministries departments and agencies Today we do not have such a website that is fully functional with open government data even though we have a website named Transparency Sierra Leone that has not met its objectives This past October Sierra Leone announced its intent and commitment to become a member in the open government partnership whose strategy is grounded on information technology as the primary medium to open up government Actions Required Milestones for Completion a Open data readiness assessment completed in collaboration with development partners b Expertsonthedesignofanopendataportalwithdevelopmentpartners and Non Governmental Organizations engaged c Source funding to establish a data portal for pilot Government documents such as budget 70 of mining and agricultural contracts and 20 of Laws of Sierra Leone that have been gazetted

Sierra Leone

6 Enact an Extractive Industry Revenue Act EIRA to promote transparency and accountability in the granting of tax incentives

The Extractives Industry Revenue is an Act that is required to regulate the management of revenue especially with reference to the granting of tax incentives to companies operating in Sierra Leone Implementing the draft Extractives Industry Revenue Bill is crucial in that it would require the government to publish a statement of its tax expenditure detailing all tax exemptions the beneficiaries and the revenue foregone in a bid to promote transparency It will also require producing and publishing a cost benefit analysis on the need to grant tax incentive on an annual basis hence the public will be well informed on the rationale for granting tax incentives which may engender public debate and foster accountability and reduce the discretionary powers of Government officials Recently according to the National Revenue Authority over 1 Billion in concessions were given to countries operating in Sierra Leone over a two year period Actions Required Milestones for Completion a Public consultations held on the Bill within a reasonable time frame b Bill tabled in Cabinet by Ministry of Finance and Economic Development c Bill tabled in Parliament d Bill passed by Parliament and enacted

Sierra Leone

3 Scale up and deepen the activities of the Performance Management and Service Delivery Directorate to improve accountability and increase civic participation in governance

 The Performance Management and Service Delivery Directorate was established in 2013 in the Office of the Chief of Staff to lead performance contracting of key public officials within key service delivery institutions across Government To date performance contracts have been rolled out to over 80 of ministries departments and agencies tertiary education institutions and local councils The Performance Tracking Table is used to help institutions plan their activities against which they are assessed on a bi yearly basis in a bid to ensure improved service delivery however dissemination of the assessments to the public has been poor which has undermined its objective of improving accountability Improving on civic participation in the PMSD process will increase accountability which is assumed will result in improved service delivery Actions Required Milestones for Completion a All assessments of MDAs covered by PMSD published in a yearly volume to be made available to the public in print and online mediums b 9 pilot MDAs for implementation selected c Ensure that in the planning and budget cycle for an initial 9 piloted MDAs yearly activity plans are prepared in conjunction with procurement plans which will be the basis of budgets submitted for consideration to the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development The planning cycle and fiscal cycle must be synchronized to ensure that the activity based budget by MOFED is in fact informed by proper planning vis a vis a robust activity and procurement plan which should inform budget preparation d Town Hall meeting held not more than 2 months after publication to engage the public on the findings by the Performance Management and Service Delivery Directorate through a public bi yearly assessment of the performance contracts

Serbia

MEASURE 13 STRENGTHENING CSO PARTICIPATION IN MONITORING THE PAR IPLEMENTATION

Monitoring and evaluation of the planned reform activities is essential for an on going harmonization of the process enabling timely response and introducing corrective measures in case of any delays or discrepancies identified The monitoring system used for this process is based on regular processing of data collected from regular and interim reports The current system hasn t been sufficiently systemic it has been predominantly based on the ad hoc and inconsistent reporting and monitoring It is therefore necessary to develop a complete and efficient monitoring and evaluation system for the outcome of performed activities This principally implies the introduction of mandatory quarterly semi annual reports by all the actors which would be submitted to the competent Ministry After being processed by the competent Ministry they are discussed by the Inter ministerial Project group and then at higher levels of coordination of the implementation of the PAR Strategy With the aim of more comprehensive and objective data collection better information on the activities of CSOs that can contribute to reforms better flow of information to civil society about the activities of the state and monitoring of the implementation of the planned reform activities there is a need to include CSOs in the Inter ministerial Project group as support for the improvement of the monitoring system

Romania

A 1 e Initiating pilot projects in partnerships

initiating pilot projects that may serve as examples of good practice and support promoting the concept and benefits of open data in partnership with organizations whose commitment may have an immediate positive impact on increasing institutional transparency and credibility ex data sets regarding the implementation of the SNA National Anticorruption Strategy

Philippines

3 Engage civil society in public audit

The Commission on Audit will create an internal unit as a mode to institutionalize the engagement of civil society organizations in conducting participatory audits of government projects For 2014 the Commission will jointly conduct four pilot audits of infrastructure projects with partner civil society organizations

Philippines

2 Support for the passage of legislations on access to information and protection of whistleblowers

The government commits to include in the priority legislation of the Executive two bills that promote access to information and protection of whistleblowers Parallel activities will be conducted by civil society advocates to support the passage of the two priority bills

Mexico

9 Gasto abierto

Construir una plataforma p blica abierta e interactiva que permita a las personas conocer y dar seguimiento a la asignaci n destino y resultados del gasto federalizado as como de la obra p blica financiada con recursos federales que incluya las justificaciones t cnicas la localidad y el tipo de proyecto de inversi n La informaci n deber estar disponible en datos abiertos y contar con mecanismos de consulta accesibles como la georeferenciaci n interactiva a nivel localidad Para esto se deber actualizar el sistema por medio del cual los gobiernos locales reportan el ejercicio del gasto a la federaci n

Israel

2 State Budget Information Accessibility

Since 2011 due to public demand the Finance Ministry has been publishing budget details in Excel files Using the information published the NGO Workshop for Public Information created the Open Budget Website that allows the budget to be searched and analyzed from different perspectives The site includes participatory platforms that enable discussion about sections of the budget and participation on social media sites

Hungary

5 Dissemination of information on anti corruption and integrity

a Hungary undertakes to provide training for public officials in the topics of integrity anti corruption and ethics b Hungary undertakes to provide within the training system of state organs trainings elements for public administration local government and judicial sector workers on the freedom of information which also give a clear guideline for the independent proactive disclosure of data of public interest c Hungary undertakes to launch a credible transparent cost efficient awareness raising campaign which builds on the involvement of citizens and NGOs and provides information differentiated by target groups in order to increase the knowledge and consciousness of members of society about corruption phenomena as well as the attitudes and counter measures that may be applied against them d Hungary undertakes to ensure that the values and knowledge relating to corruption phenomena as well as the attitudes and counter measures that may be applied against them are incorporated in school education including the revision of course books in this topic and amplifying them with anti corruption information

Honduras

8 Planificaci n eficiencia y transparencia en las compras p blicas

No hay control sobre la planificaci n de las compras y contrataciones del Estado lo que imposibilita medir la eficiencia del gasto Compras fraccionadas y altos costos en las transacciones relacionadas a las adquisiciones del Estado Mejorar la planificaci n de las compras vincul ndolas al presupuesto nacional en todos los niveles del aparato gubernamental y aumentar la eficiencia en las compras y contrataciones del Estado mediante la institucionalizaci n de mecanismos probados y mediante la participaci n ciudadana en el monitoreo de los procesos de compras p blicas

Honduras

1 Promote Compliance with the PTLCC

Impulsar el cumplimiento del Plan de Transparencia y Lucha contra la Corrupcio n mediante la ejecucio n y seguimiento de 115 acciones vinculadas a 25 instituciones del sector pu blico y sociedad civil mediante un plan de accio n donde se establezcan los plazos responsables y sanciones que obliguen a los actores involucrados a su adhesio n Existe el compromiso de elaborar un informe anual de los avances de este plan y hacerlo de conocimiento pu blico

Guatemala

A2 Promover la participaci n y la vigilancia ciudadana informada y alertar

Informar a todas y todos los ciudadanos en los idiomas existentes sobre el gobierno abierto 1 Promover la Participaci n capacitaci n de los pueblos ind genas 2 Promover la participaci n capacitaci n a m s ciudadanos 3 Promover por medio de los medios de comunicaci n masiva acerca del gobierno abierto y fomentar la cultura de transparencia acceso a la informaci n y combate contra la corrupci n

Guatemala

8 Mesas T cnicas con Sociedad civil Sector Acad mico Sector Empresarial y de Gobierno Abierto

Fortalecimiento de Mecanismos para estimular la participaci n de Sociedad Civil y diferentes sectores en los esfuerzos destinados a prevenir la corrupci n Mecanismos de Cumplimiento 1 Doce reuniones anuales de mesa t cnica del sector de Sociedad Civil convocando a 30 organizaciones no gubernamentales promoviendo la auditoria social en las entidades p blicas 2 Doce reuniones anuales de mesa t cnica de sector acad mico convocando a 12 instituciones promoviendo convenios de apoyo mutuo en la promoci n de la transparencia 3 Doce reuniones anuales de mesa t cnica de sector salud para dar cumplimiento a la entrega de informes de pa s en el sector salud para el incremento de los indicadores de control de corrupci n de Guatemala 4 Doce reuniones anuales de mesa t cnica del sector empre sarial para impulsar el pacto empresarial por la integrad contra la corrupci n Doce reuniones anuales de mesa t cnica del sector interinstitucional para la elaboraci n de indicadores nacionales con el fin de desarrollar mecanismos modernos para prevenir la corrupci n

Guatemala

7 Sensibilizar a la poblaci n en materia de transparencia y combate a la corrupci n y crear espacios para la participaci n ciudadana en la toma de decisiones

Objetivo Elevar los conocimientos de la poblaci n en materia de acceso a la informaci n p blica y denuncia de actos de corrupci n surgidos en la administraci n p blica Mecanismos de Cumplimiento 1 4000 personas beneficiarias del proyecto 2 30 de incremento semestral en denuncias quejas recibidas en el mecanismo de denuncias creado por COPRET 100 de quejas denuncias con resoluci n final

Ghana

3 3 1 Implementation of Audit Recommendations

Government will further strengthen the accountability mechanisms of Ministries Departments and Agencies MDAs by reviewing the composition of the largely dysfunctional Audit Report Implementation Committees ARICs to include CSO representatives and independent professionals who will more effectively implement the recommendations of audit reports A major impediment to effective implementation is that the Implementation Committee is predominantly composed of officers of the same Ministry or Department whose handling of public money has been queried by the Auditor General Actions Convene a meeting of appropriate CSOs and government Agencies to review the Financial Administration Act particularly the provision on Audit Report Implementation Committees ARICs Agree on amendment of composition of ARICs to include CSO representatives and independent professionals Amend Financial Administration Act

Ghana

3 3 Accountability

In 2013 2014 Ghana Government commits to make public officers more accountable to the public by encouraging Parliament to effect the speedy passage of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers Bill and initiate action for immediate implementation Government will introduce arrangements for the verification of assets declared by public officers through the appointment of a public officer of a rank not lower than an appeal court judge to verify assets and liabilities declared by public officers This will minimize or bring to closure the persistent skepticism about the existing asset declaration regime and inject public confidence into the process In its present form of assets declaration without verification public confidence is low or non existent Actions Organize one consultative forum on the status of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers Bill and legal requirements for appointing an Assets Declaration Commissioner Passage of the Bill by parliament Government to appoint Assets Verification Commissioner by 2014

Ghana

3 1 6 Tracking Government Investment

Extensive economic reforms in the past included substantial offloading of Government interest in a large number of commercial activities And yet Government still maintains significant investments in some sectors of the economy The perennial challenge facing Government is one of finding a mechanism for exercising close oversight and comprehensive tracking of its various investments Under the OGen government Initiative the Government commits to assign open and transparent tracking of its overall investment as an additional responsibility of the Policy Evaluation and Oversight Unit in the Office of the President PEOU The PEOU currently has oversight responsibility for the performance of Ministries Departments and Agencies MDAs but lacks legislative backing Actions Political leadership and administrative heads to provide the PEOU with accurate and timely information Organize a forum or meeting of CSOs in governance and economic policy to discuss legislative backing and additional PEOU responsibility for oversight and tracking of government investment Hold meeting with Attorney General s Department to prepare the draft legislation for the PEOU including new function of exercising oversight and tracking of government investments During the OGPI plan period Government will take steps to initiate the process for the PEOU legislative backing that clearly specifies the additional function of tracking overall government investment Experience gained from years of monitoring MDAs will prove useful in tracking total government investments

Ghana

3 1 5 Oil Revenue Management

The Petroleum Revenues Management Law has provided for the establishment of Public Interest Accountability Committee PIAC with the primary responsibility of enforcing transparency in the management of oil revenues PIAC is a predominantly civil society body that monitors the flow of oil revenues and expenditures Established in 2011 PIAC has already issued its first report for that year and enjoyed considerable independence and generous budgetary allocation Over the 2013 2014 period the Ghana Government commits itself to maintain and strengthen the independence of PIAC by continuing the provision of adequate budgetary allocation and supporting relevant CSOs to conduct annual M E exercises to assess the extent of PIAC independence Government further commits to the full implementation of recommendations from annual M E reports as it will maintain and strengthen PIAC s independent operations Government should further strengthen the legal framework on other minerals such as Gold Actions Publish regulations on the Petroleum Management Act Act 815 Pass the Mineral Development Fund Bill Call at least four meetings of relevant CSOs Ministries and Departments to formulate a framework for monitoring and evaluation of PIAC independence Support publication and dissemination of M E reports Support relevant agencies to formulate sustainability plans for annual M E exercises and reports

Georgia

Commitment 18 Establish Mechanism to Inform the Public on Budgetary Processes

One of the most important tools for opening up governments and increasing their accountability is providing the public with information regarding the government activities The latter is especially important with regard to the budgetary process Public engagement in developing state budget and informing citizens on budget executions are crucial components of transparency of public finance management its effectiveness and efficiency According to the Budgetary Code of Georgia transparency is one of the one of the principles of the Budgetary System of the country Currently the Parliament the Government and the Ministry of Finance of Georgia ensure publication of and access to draft law on annual state budget approved state budget and its execution reports The public is informed about budget process through various presentations as well as publication of the relevant documents online However there is no formal mechanism for managing these processes With coordination of the Ministry of Finance of Georgia and based on the recommendation of international and civil society organizations list of specific actions and the scheme for disseminating information of budgetary processes was elaborated and ensuring civil society involvement in the budgetary process

Georgia

Commitment 10 Coordinate and Support Open Government Georgia s Forum

The Open Government Georgia s Forum is a national coordination consultative mechanism of the OGP at the national level established under the Anti Corruption Council of Georgia to support elaboration of the OGP Action Plan and monitor its implementation The Forum comprises responsible agencies NGOs international organizations and private sector The Forum held its first meeting on January 15 2014 since then Forum sessions have been held regularly on a monthly basis and were mainly focused on elaboration of Georgia s second Action Plan After submitting the second Action Plan of Georgia to the OGP Support Unit the Forum will continue to assist the Action Plan implementation monitor its progress raise awareness on Open Government Georgia s process and coordinate OGP processes at the national level The Secretariat of the Anti Corruption Council of Georgia commits itself to 1 Coordinate the forum activities and assist in administrative matters 2 Determine agenda for the sessions 3 Prepare minutes of the Forum meetings 4 Present activity reports of the Forum to the Anti Corruption Council of Georgia biannually

Georgia

Commitment 9 Elaborate Freedom of Information Act

Freedom of Information legislation is one of the key tools for transparent and accountable governments In this regard it is essential for the legislation to provide high standards of openness and accountability while its implementation in practice should not lead to unreasonable spending of public resources and accordingly tax payers money Therefore refinement of the laws on freedom of information and ensuring its compliance with international standards is one of the objectives of the Georgian government Currently the norms regulating access to public information are scattered in several laws as well as significant difficulties are encountered in practical implementation of legislation Taking into consideration practical challenges elaboration of special law aims to eradicate legislative gaps and consolidate existing legal provisions in a separate act which in turn will improve the practice of access to information and support the government as well as civil society and wide community to establish open and accountable rational and optimized civil service The special act will emphasize openness policy of the government and will ease the work of the professionals involved in the area Ministry of Justice of Georgia will coordinate elaboration of freedom of information law in close cooperation with civil society In order to ensure broad consultation process and wide involvement of stakeholders a special working group will be created Based on consultations and international expertise the special working group will elaborate the new provisions of freedom of information in compliance with international standards The first draft will be completed in spring 2015

El Salvador

2 9 Implementar sistemas de recepci n de quejas y o denuncias sobre posibles casos de corrupci n por las oficinas de informaci n y su an lisis por los encargados de la auditor a interna

2 9 Implementar sistemas de recepci n de quejas y o denuncias sobre posibles casos de corrupci n por las oficinas de informaci n y su an lisis por los encargados de la auditor a interna

Albania

4 1 Law on whistleblowers protection

Currently the trust of the public towards the public administration is low while the risk that an informant will have when denouncing cases of corruption is very high In Albania there is no clear framework which ensures cooperation with informants and protects whistleblowers This law together with the awareness campaign that will follow will ensure that informants that will entrust the enforcement agencies with information regarding corruption in sectors where they work or are involved will be protected This law will not only enhance transparency and reporting of cases of corruption but also the credibility of the administration A draft law currently exists and is under consultation The law is in line with the National Strategy on the Fight Against Corruption 2014 2017 which provides for both preventative and awareness raising objectives Furthermore the adoption of the law is also part of the Roadmap Priority Nr 3 commitment for the fight against corruption in the context of Albania s integration in the EU There will be abroad consultation with government agencies and donors while there are also planned consultation meetings for the civil society and business sector Following these consultations the draft will be edited to reflect comments and after further internal and external consultations the law is expected to be finalized in fall and adopted before the end of the year

Dominican Republic

Continuar Desarrollo del Mecanismo de la Iniciativa Participativa Anticorrupci n IPAC

Dar continuidad a la Iniciativa Participativa Anti Corrupci n como un mecanismo permanente de interacci n entre el Gobierno sociedad civil sector empresarial asociaciones sin fines de lucro academias gremios profesionales y ciudadan a en general para la coordinaci n y desarrollo de iniciativas que mejoren los niveles de transparencia prevengan la corrupci n en la administraci n p blica fomenten la rendici n de cuentas y permitan al Estado dar respuesta a las denuncias que se generen en el marco de este mecanismo Status quo o problema que se quiere resolver No existe una instancia permanente donde los puedan expresar sus inquietudes y participar en la creaci n de pol ticas p blicas de acuerdo a sus necesidades reales Objetivo Principal Crear un espacio en el que los ciudadanos a trav s de las organizaciones que los representan puedan llevar inquietudes quejas y propuestas sobre aspectos negativos del gobierno que quisieran sean mejoradas

Croatia

13 1 Develop a new anti corruption strategy

 decision of the Government Ministry of Justice on the establishment of a working group coordination body for managing the process of drawing up the Draft strategy detecting corruption risks in all sectoral areas encompassed by the Draft of the strategy formation of sectoral teams for drawing up the draft strategy public consultation conducted on the draft strategy number of staff of public authorities included in the process of drawing up the draft strategy number of civil society organisations included in the process of drawing up the draft strategy draft strategy drawn up to 30 September 2014 strategy adopted by the Government to 30 December 2014

Brazil

2 5 Encouragement of social participation

to foster social control by means of a broad communication strategy aimed at disseminating knowledge on the topics of social control and prevention and fighting of corruption with a view to highlight the importance of civil participation as an instrument for enhancing public ethics and integrity

Brazil

10 Organization of the 1st National Conference on Transparency and Social Control 1st Consocial

Realiza o da 1 Confer ncia Nacional sobre Transpar ncia e Controle Social 1 Consocial ser o debatidos durante todo o processo conferencial quatro eixos tem ticos a promo o da transpar ncia e acesso informa o e dados p blicos mecanismos de controle social engajamento e capacita o da sociedade para o controle da gest o p blica atua o dos conselhos de pol ticas p blicas como inst ncias de controle e diretrizes para a preven o e o combate corrup o Al m das etapas estaduais e municipais a sociedade poder debater os eixos tem ticos em confer ncias livres e virtuais Quanto ao car ter propositivo da confer ncia pretende se que as diretrizes subsidiem a elabora o de um Plano Nacional sobre Transpar ncia e Controle Social para os rg os da Administra o P blica e orientadoras da atividade no seio da sociedade

Armenia

7 Ensuring open transparent participatory and accountable process of state policies and legislative reforms

Making amendments in the agenda of the boards councils of Ministries of the RA established by the protocol decision N 47 of November 20 2008 of the RA government decision that will Separate and clarify the functions of boards and councils will further specify the list of participants their rights and responsibilities Define open and transparent formation procedures and activities of councils as well as the standards of CSO representation and professional qualification Determine the introduction of electronic accountability system on the official websites of the RA Government and Ministries for making transparent and available the public proposals and official comments thereon the annual reports of participatory and consultative bodies

 

 

 



[1] https://civic.mit.edu/blog/liliamaud/hacking-institutional-corruption

[2] http://www.open-contracting.org/

[3] http://www.rissc.it/sites/default/files/images/2015%20TACOD%20 REPORT.pdf

[4] http://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Stoneman%20-%20 Does %20Open%20Data%20need%20Journalism.pdf

[5] http://wbi.worldbank.org/boost/

[6] https://civic.mit.edu/blog/liliamaud/hacking-institutional-corruption

[7] http://wecott.csail.mit.edu/

[8] http://www.opengovpartnership.org/about

[9] The data collected in this analysis refer to the pre-May 2015 standards of starred commitments. For a full description of what starred commitments are, and how they are referred to nowadays, visit:

 http://www.opengovpartnership.org/blog/independent-reporting-mechanism/2015/05/06/irm-raise-bar-model-commitments-ogp

[10] J. Foti, IRM Technical paper, 2014, p. 3.

[11] https://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview

[12] CPI Score average is 49,93 and the Share of Anti-corruption commitments is of 20,66%.

[13] http://goo.gl/cwfRtM.

[14] http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.iap2.org/resource/resmgr/imported/IAP2%20Spectrum_vertical.pdf.

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